A to Z definitions

From aneurysm to zebrafish – we've got you covered.


The zebrafish is a simple model for studying vertebrate development and genetics and is a means of understanding how not only fish, but all vertebrates including humans, develop from the moment that sperm fertilizes an egg.

Urine collection (24-hour)

A test done in combination with the blood creatinine test to determine kidney function, called creatinine clearance and is an approximation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

ACE inhibitors

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors; a group of drugs commonly used to treat hypertension in PKD patients.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; the more common form of PKD, it occurs in approx. 1 in 500 live births.


A hormone that causes the body to retain salt and lose potassium.


A test used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.

Amniotic fluid

The protective fluid contained in the amniotic sac of a pregnant female; the fluid is partially supplied by fetal urine which is produced by the fetal kidneys; in ARPKD, poor prenatal renal function causes a reduction in this fluid.


An outpouching in a blood vessel which can leak or rupture.


Procedures that utilize contrast dye injected into the blood vessels in order to clearly visualize them; it is typically used when an aneurysm is suspected or to look for blockages in heart vessels.


A powerful constrictor of blood vessels; it stimulates the production of aldosterone.